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After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India en masse, while some Muslim refugees from the newly independent Republic of India settled in the city.Multan's urban typology is similar to other ancient cities in South Asia, such as Peshawar, Lahore, and Delhi - all of which were founded near a major river, and included an old walled city, as well as a royal citadel.The average annual precipitations 186 millimetres (7.3 in).Multan is known for having some of the hottest weather in the Pakistan.and attracted a multitude of Sufi mystics in the 11th and 12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints.The city, along with the nearby city of Uch, is renowned for its large collection of Sufi shrines dating from that era.Despite invasion, Multan remained northwest India's premier commercial centre throughout most of the 18th century. After repeated invasions following the collapse of the Mughal Empire, Multan was reduced from being one of the world's most important early-modern commercial centres, to a regional trading town.
Multan features an arid climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with very hot summers and mild winters.
In 1818, the armies of Kharak Singh and Misr Diwan Chand lay around Multan without making much initial headway, until Ranjit Singh dispatched the massive Zamzama cannon, which quickly led to disintegration of the Multan's defences.
The 1848 Multan Revolt and subsequent Siege of Multan began on 19 April 1848 when local Sikhs loyal to Diwan Mulraj Chopra murdered two emissaries of the British Raj, Vans Agnew and Lieutenant Anderson.
The renowned Arab explorer Ibn Battuta visited Multan in the 1300s during the reign of Muhammad Tughluq, and noted that Multan was a trading centre for horses imported from as far away as the Russian Steppe.
Multan witnessed difficult times as the Mughal Empire waned in power following the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707.